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Sunday, 7 January 2018

PHP include and require Statements

PHP include and require Statements::


The include (or require) statement takes all the text/code/markup that exists in the specified file and copies it into the file that uses the include statement.
Including files is very useful when you want to include the same PHP, HTML, or text on multiple pages of a website.



PHP include and require Statements

It is possible to insert the content of one PHP file into another PHP file (before the server executes it), with the include or require statement.
The include and require statements are identical, except upon failure:
  • require will produce a fatal error (E_COMPILE_ERROR) and stop the script
  • include will only produce a warning (E_WARNING) and the script will continue
So, if you want the execution to go on and show users the output, even if the include file is missing, use the include statement. Otherwise, in case of FrameWork, CMS, or a complex PHP application coding, always use the require statement to include a key file to the flow of execution. This will help avoid compromising your application's security and integrity, just in-case one key file is accidentally missing.
Including files saves a lot of work. This means that you can create a standard header, footer, or menu file for all your web pages. Then, when the header needs to be updated, you can only update the header include file.

Syntax

include 'filename';

or

require 'filename';

PHP include Examples

Example 1

Assume we have a standard footer file called "footer.php", that looks like this:
<?php
echo "<p>Copyright &copy; 1999-" . date("Y") . " W3Schools.com</p>";
?>


To include the footer file in a page, use the include statement:

Example

<html>
<body>

<h1>Welcome to my home page!</h1>
<p>Some text.</p>
<p>Some more text.</p>
<?php include'footer.php';?>

</body>
</html>

Example 2

Assume we have a standard menu file called "menu.php":
<?php
echo '<a href="/default.asp">Home</a> -
<a href="/html/default.asp">HTML Tutorial</a> -
<a href="/css/default.asp">CSS Tutorial</a> -
<a href="/js/default.asp">JavaScript Tutorial</a> -
<a href="default.asp">PHP Tutorial</a>';
?>
All pages in the Web site should use this menu file. Here is how it can be done (we are using a <div> element so that the menu easily can be styled with CSS later):

Example

<html>
<body>

<div class="menu">
<?php include'menu.php';?>
</div>

<h1>Welcome to my home page!</h1>
<p>Some text.</p>
<p>Some more text.</p>

</body>
</html>
Run example »

Example 3

Assume we have a file called "vars.php", with some variables defined:
<?php
$color='red';
$car='BMW';
?>
Then, if we include the "vars.php" file, the variables can be used in the calling file:

Example

<html>
<body>

<h1>Welcome to my home page!</h1>
<?php include'vars.php';
echo "I have a $color $car.";
?>


</body>
</html>



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